Question 1

​The fact that international specialization and trade based on comparative advantage can increase world output is demonstrated by the reality that:

​the production possibilities curves of any two nations are identical

​a nation’s production possibilities line lies to the right of its trading possibilities line

​a nation’s trading possibilities line lies to the right of its production possibilities line

​a nation’s production possibilities and trading possibilities lines coincide

Question 2

The business cycle depicts:

​the phases a business goes through from when it first opens to when it finally closes

​the evolution of technology over time

​short-run fluctuations in output and employment(Probably wrong, not sure. Either answer of question 1 is wrong or question2 is wrong)

​fluctuations in the general price level

3.Which of the following have substantially equivalent effects on a nation’s volume of exports and imports?​

​Exchange rate depreciation and domestic inflation

​Exchange rate depreciation and domestic deflation

​Exchange rate appreciation and domestic deflation

​Exchange rate appreciation and a decrease in the domestic supply of money

4If an unintended increase in business inventories occurs at some level of GDP, then GDP:​

​may be either above or below the equilibrium output

​is too high for equilibrium

​is too low for equilibrium

​entails a rate of aggregate expenditures in excess of the rate of aggregate production

5​Why are economists concerned about inflation?

​Inflation lowers the standard of living for people whose income does not increase as fast as the price level

​Inflation increases the value of peoples’ saving and encourages overspending on goods and services 

​Inflation generally causes unemployment rates to rise

​Real GDP is necessarily falling when there is inflation

6Contractionary fiscal policy is so named because it:​

​involves a contraction of the nation’s money supply

​is aimed at reducing aggregate demand and thus achieving price stability

​necessarily reduces the size of government

​is expressly designed to expand real GDP

7The term “recession” describes a situation where:​

​government takes a less active role in economic matters

​output and living standards decline

​inflation rates exceed normal levels

​an economy’s ability to produce is destroyed

8Which of the following statements best describes the 12 Federal Reserve Banks?​

​They are privately owned and publicly controlled central banks whose basic goal is to earn profits for their owners.

​They are privately owned and publicly controlled central banks whose basic goal is to control the money supply and interest rates in promoting the general economic welfare.

​They are privately owned and publicly controlled central banks whose basic function is to minimize the risks in commercial banking in order to make it a reasonably profitable industry.

​They are privately owned and privately controlled central banks whose basic goal is to provide an ample and orderly market for U.S. Treasury securities.

9​The primary gain from international trade is:

​tariff revenue

​more goods than would be attainable through domestic production alone

​increased employment in the domestic import sector

​increased employment in the domestic export sector

10If the prices of all goods and services rose, but the quantity produced remained unchanged, what would happen to nominal and real GDP?​

​Nominal and real GDP would both rise

​Real GDP would rise, but nominal GDP would be unchanged

​Nominal GDP would rise, but real GDP would be unchanged

​Nominal and real GDP would both be unchanged

11​Pure monopolists may obtain economic profits in the long run because:

​of rising average fixed costs

​of barriers to entry

​of advertising

​marginal revenue is constant as sales increase 

12​Mrs. Arnold is spending all her money income by buying bottles of soda and bags of pretzels in such amounts that the marginal utility of the last bottle is 60 utils and the marginal utility of the last bag is 30 utils. The prices of soda and pretzels are $.60 per bottle and $.40 per bag respectively. It can be concluded that:

​the two commodities are substitute goods

​Mrs. Arnold should spend more on soda and less on pretzels

​Mrs. Arnold should spend more on pretzels and less on soda

​Mrs. Arnold is buying soda and pretzels in the utility-maximizing amounts

13​Suppose you have a limited money income and you are purchasing products A and B, whose prices happen to be the same. To maximize your utility, you should purchase A and B in such amounts that:

​their marginal and total utilities are proportionate

​their marginal utilities are the same

​the income and substitution effects associated with each are equal

​their total utilities are the same

14​Two major virtues of the market system are that it:

​eliminates discrimination and minimizes environmental pollution

​allocates resources efficiently and allows economic freedom

​results in price level stability and a fair personal distribution of income

​results in an equitable personal distribution of income and always maintains full employment

15​Macroeconomics approaches the study of economics from the viewpoint of:

​the entire economy

​governmental units

​individual firms

​the operation of specific product and resource markets

16Which of the following will generate a demand for country X’s currency in the foreign exchange market?​

​The imports of country X

​Travel by citizens of country X in other countries

​The desire of foreigners to buy stocks and bonds of firms in country X

​Charitable contributions by country X’s citizens to citizens of developing nations

17​The simple circular flow model shows that:

​households are on the buying side of both product and resource markets.

​businesses are on the selling side of both product and resource markets.

​businesses are on the buying side of the product market and on the selling side of the resource market.

​households are on the selling side of the resource market and on the buying side of the product market.

18Countercyclical discretionary fiscal policy calls for:​

​surpluses during both recessions and periods of demand-pull inflation

​surpluses during recessions and deficits during periods of demand-pull inflation

​deficits during recessions and surpluses during periods of demand-pull inflation

​deficits during both recessions and periods of demand-pull inflation

19​If the Federal Reserve System buys government securities from commercial banks and the public:

​commercial bank reserves will decline

​the money supply will contract

​it will be easier to obtain loans at commercial banks

​commercial bank reserves will be unaffected

20​The two basic markets shown by the simple circular flow model are:

​product and resource

​free and controlled

​capital goods and consumer goods

​household and business

21All else equal, a large decline in the real interest rate will shift the:​

​investment demand curve rightward

​investment demand curve leftward

​investment schedule downward

​investment schedule upward

22Normal profit is:​

​determined by subtracting implicit costs from total revenue

​the return to the entrepreneur when economic profits are zero

​the average profitability of an industry over the preceding 10 years

​determined by subtracting explicit costs from total revenue

23In the theory of comparative advantage, a good should be produced in that nation where:​

​its absolute cost in terms of real resources used is least

​its cost is least in terms of alternative goods that might otherwise be produced

​the production possibilities line lies further to the right than the trading possibilities line

​its absolute money cost of production is least

24As output increases, total variable cost:​

​increases continuously at a decreasing rate

​increases at a constant rate

​increases more rapidly than does total cost

​increases at a decreasing rate and then at an increasing rate

25Assume the reserve ratio is 25 percent and Federal Reserve Banks buy $4 million of U.S. securities from the public, which deposits this amount into checking accounts. As a result of these transactions, the supply of money is:​

directly increased by $4 million and the money-creating potential of the commercial banking system is increased by $12 million.

​directly increased by $4 million and the money-creating potential of the commercial banking system is increased by an additional $16 million.

​not directly affected, but the money-creating potential of the commercial banking system is increased by $12 million.

​directly reduced by $4 million and the money-creating potential of the commercial banking system is decreased by an additional $12 million.

26​Buyers will opt out of markets in which:

​standardized products are being produced

​there are only foreign sellers

​there are significant negative externalities

​there is inadequate information about sellers and their products

27In order for mutually beneficial trade to occur between two otherwise isolated nations:​

​each nation must be able to produce at least one good absolutely cheaper than the other

​each nation must face constant costs in the production of the good it exports

​each nation must be able to produce at least one good relatively cheaper than the other

​one nation’s production must be labor-intensive while the other nation’s production is capital-intensive

28Research for industrially advanced countries indicates that:​

​the more independent the central bank, the higher the average annual rate of inflation

​there is no relationship between the degree of independence of a country’s central bank and its inflation rate.

​the more independent the central bank, the higher the average annual rate of unemployment.

​the more independent the central bank, the lower the average annual rate of inflation

29​A monopolistically competitive industry combines elements of both competition and monopoly. The monopoly element results from:

​the likelihood of collusion

​mutual interdependence

​high entry barriers

​product differentiation

30​Because the federal government typically provides disaster relief to farmers, many farmers do not buy crop insurance even through it is federally subsidized. This illustrates:

​the moral hazard problem

​logrolling

​the adverse selection problem

​the special interest effect