What are treatment plans for sleep apnea

This is the first part Instructions: Choose 1 of the following prewriting activities to complete for your exploratory essay

Topic: Sleep Apnea Research questions:
  1. What is sleep apnea
  2. How does sleep apnea affect the life of the person who has this disorder
  3. What are treatment plans for sleep apnea
Annotated Bibliography Motamedi, Kevin K et al. “Obstructive sleep apnea: a growing problem.” The Ochsner journal vol. 9,3 (2009): 149-53. Motamedi et al (2009) describe obstructive sleep apnea as an underrated and underdiagnosed medical condition while it has several negative effects not only in patient’s health but also the society in general. The article outlines major consequences of obstructive sleep apnea to include loud snoring, sleepiness during daytime, as well as restless sleep. Sleep apnea is mainly diagnosed using a process called polysomnography, which is a physical examination on the patient that is aimed at identifying previous undiagnosed cases in patient’s health that could possibly be causing sleep apnea. The article described sleep apnea as a chronic disorder if it is not discovered and addressed intime as it can result in chronic conditions such as depression, heart disease, hypertension or even death. For that reason, there is need for increased awareness to educate the community about this condition, its symptoms, conservation approaches as well as treatment methods. For instance, patients with obstructive sleep disorder should stop certain behaviors like taking alcohol and tobacco, and work on losing weight if they have over- weight issues, as conservative approaches to the disorder. Marin-Oto, M., Vicente, E.E. & Marin, J.M. Long term management of obstructive sleep apnea and its comorbidities. Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine, vol. 14, no. 21, 2019. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40248-019-0186-3 Obstructive sleep apnea is a global epidemic that is associated with disturbing consequences such as impaired neurocognitive functions and daytime performance which may affects patient’s normal social life, concentration in class, or even ability to drive due to excessive sleepiness that comes with the disease. Prolonged cases of obstructive sleep apnea may result in chronic consequences such as increased risk of metabolic syndrome, cerebrovascular, and cardiovascular disorders that may cause premature death in a patient if they do not get addressed in time. Effective management of sleep apnea requires personalized treatment to ensure that a patient benefit from personalized attention to have optimal long-term results. Treatment methods such as continuous positive airway pressure have demonstrated positive results in reducing daytime sleepiness. The article suggests that long term management of sleep disorder is based on two major practices. First, it is based on identifying psychological abnormalities that can be solved, and secondly, on comprehensive lifestyle intervention like weight management. Generally, in long-term management of obstructive sleep apnea, clinical changes should be closely monitored to ensure that symptoms do not reoccur as well as no new symptoms evolve. Marrone O, Bonsignore MR. Obstructive sleep apnea and chronic kidney disease: open questions on a potential public health problem. Journal of Thoracic Disease, vol. 10, no. 1, 2018, pp. 45- 48. doi: 10.21037/jtd.2017.12.12 Marrone and Bonsignore examined the relationship between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and chronic kidney disease (CKD). The concept of the study was based on common risk factors such as obesity that are associated with CKD and OSA as well as their complex interrelationships such as diabetes, heart diseases, or hypertension. Authors observed that there could be a linkage between OSA and CKD which comes with reduced cases of loud snoring which they argued that it could possibly be a new phenotype reflecting the evolution of kidney dysfunction. The article says that the importance of treating OSA has been neglected despite the high prevalence of the disorder. It advocates for more research on the subject to exemplify the need for appropriate therapeutic intervention to address this disease.

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